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Burrell and Toyama offer a set of definitional pointers to carve out methodological trajectories constituting good research methods and analysis for a multidisciplinary and inclusive field such as ICTD and HCI4D. The field and learnings from field immersions for a context-driven HCI was proposed by Anokwa et al. These authors were instrumental in grounding methodological practices of HCI4D firmly in-context. HCI4D research for its part has maintained a focus on design for better access and usability qualified by low-resource settings.

Issues of constraints—infrastructural more than cultural—were a running theme, as well as concerns for social justice and a variety of eco-political agendas. The field trips we pioneered demonstrate these issues but with a positive twist, giving the HCI4D field the excitement of an emergent research ground—and we are becoming a part of it!

Read, Markku Turunen, Pekka Kallioniemi. The means of destruction have developed pari passu with the technology of production, while creative imagination has not kept pace with either. The creative imagination I am talking of works on two levels. The first is the level of social engineering, the second is the level of vision.

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In my view both have lagged behind technology, especially in the highly advanced Western countries, and both constitute dangers. The future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented. It was man's ability to invent which has made human society what it is. In his book Inventing the Future , Denis Gabor captured his impression of the impact of technology mostly based on his experience living in the 20th century.

Technological changes were as radically productive as destructive, but generally lacked direction from the perspective of constructing more fair and just societies, or having a vision other than that related to the insatiable longing for wealth, status, or power of a few. Fast forward to and we are facing a similar situation with information and communication technologies ICTs. We have had unprecedented production, with large amounts of information quickly available to most people in high-income countries, and increasingly throughout the world.

ICT companies have focused primarily on growth, with little attention paid to the destructive uses of their technology, which now appear to have at least caught up with productive uses. Back in , together with Natasha Bullock-Rest, I presented a vision for technologies to reduce armed conflict around the world through a more just and fair world with the following goals: reducing social distance between enemies, exposing war and celebrating peace, de-incentivizing private motivation for conflict, preventing failures of the social contract, promoting democracy and education, and aiding operational prevention of conflicts.

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It is difficult to think of any major ICT company that has taken any of the goals above seriously, at the same level at which they pay attention to growth and profit. Perhaps the most disappointing development is the negative effect ICTs have had on democracy, arguably providing the greatest challenge to democratic institutions in decades. These challenges have come in at least two related forms: increasing political radicalization, and diminished trust in facts and expertise.

A third challenge is the massive accumulation of personal data that could be used in very damaging ways by authoritarian governments. In addition, increased automation is making it less necessary to interact with people who may be from a different walk of life and could provide an alternative point of view. Factionalization has come hand-in-hand with diminished trust in facts and expertise. This is another threat to democracy as it leads to ignorance.

The challenge of the massive collection of personal data becomes weaponized once democratic protections are lifted. The rich data that companies like Facebook and Google have on billions of people, in combination with widespread cameras and face-recognition technology, would have been beyond the wildest imagination of most secret police bosses in 20th-century authoritarian regimes.

The ability to go after political enemies would be unprecedented. However, our generation of ideas and projects that may impact political topics such as supporting democracy or preventing armed conflict have arguably not had an eager audience at the top levels of large ICT companies. The challenge is significant and the stakes are high. My sense is that our challenge is in some ways similar to that of the food industry, where unhealthy food, environmentally unsustainable practices, and worker exploitation are beginning to be addressed, in part, through organic and fair trade certifications.

The closest we have is free, libre, and open source software and services provided by groups such as the Mozilla Foundation and the Open Source Initiative. What would it likely involve? Periodic assessments of societal outcomes, with a focus on user empowerment, individual and community well-being, and basic democratic principles.

In his book Designing Interactions , Bill Moggridge focuses on how to design interactions with digital technologies. That makes sense if you think about interaction design as the practice of designing interactions.


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However, interactions cannot be fully designed, determined, restrained to a particular form, or fully predicted in the same way that a service can never be fully designed. At best we can design enabling preconditions that might enable or ease a particular form of interaction.

In other words, we can design the material preconditions for a particular form of interaction—but we can never completely predict and design the interaction that unfolds. As we now move into the era of more physical forms of computing—including the development of the Internet of Things, smart objects, and embedded systems—it is quite easy to see how interaction design is increasingly about arranging material preconditions for interaction. However, that is actually true for any interaction design project. As pointed out by Dourish , computing and information is always a material concern.

No matter how abstract we think computing, information, and representations are, they all rely on material infrastructures, ranging from the server halls, to the fiber networks, to the electronics that enable computing in the first place. From that perspective, interaction design becomes a design practice of imagining new forms of interactions, and then designing as good preconditions as possible to enable those particular forms of interactions to unfold.

In my recent book The Materiality of Interaction , I discuss these imagined forms of interactions and how to manifest them across physical and digital material. My answer to this question is a clear no. I then suggest that in order to manifest that imagined form of interaction in computational materials it is necessary to have a good understanding of what materials are available ranging from electronics, sensors, and analog materials, to hardware and software and to know about material properties and how different materials can be reimagined and reactivated in a computational moment.

Further, I suggest that a design challenge is how to bring those different materials into composition so as to enable a particular form of interaction. Accordingly, I suggest that a third component here is to have compositional skills to work across a whole range of materials in interaction design projects. As we now move forward with AI as our next design material , we also need to think about what should be a matter of interaction, and what interactive systems can do for us, autonomously or semi-autonomously.

Foresee: Process dictates product. To design for equity, we must design equitably. The practice of equitable design requires that we are mindful how we achieve equity. Inclusive design practices raise the voices of the marginalized, strengthen relationships across differences, shift positions, and recharge our democracy. The natural next question is how? How can the human-centered designer engage— now —with Afrofuturism? A proposed taxonomy Figure 1 , developed in collaboration with graphic and interaction designer Zane Sporrer, begins to frame this how.

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This taxonomy, depicted with a specific focus on connecting Afrofuturism with the equityXdesign framework, situates Afrofuturism as a design lens in executing liberatory design frameworks, those similar framings e. Proposed taxonomy in engaging Afrofuturism within human-centered design. As detailed in my Interactions piece , this mode of engaging Afrofuturism in speculative design is reflected in my efforts around more inclusive connected fitness technologies devices. Figure 2, conceptualized in collaboration with artist Marcel L.

Walker, reflects an exemplary speculative design artifact. While it is not the intent that this concept be implemented as imagined, this artifact, as a speculative probe, fosters design conversations that enrich the plausible solution space. F igure 2. Global pulse speculative design artifact. From an interaction design perspective in particular, deeper discussions around ways that data and information offered by connected fitness devices can be better synthesized, situated, and visualized are spurred.

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As the type and nature of insights traditionally offered by these devices are more quantitative in nature e. As is indicative of speculative design, immediate outcomes are not typically commercially viable or usable; further grounding is necessary. This ultimately seeds more inclusive and novel plausible solutions for further iteration and eventual refinement. And, to hopefully state the obvious, inclusion matters in technology design. Because if technology has the power to connect the world, as technologists so often proclaim, then it also has the power to make the world a more inclusive place, simply by building interfaces that reflect all its users.

Thus, the need for human-centered designers to both develop and engage with tools, methods, and practices that support this premise is paramount.

Afrofuturism represents such a tool— a design lens —through which the requisite intentionality and actions can be both catalyzed and implemented. I am both excited and encouraged by recent feedback from my Interactions article to continue this conversation. In particular, I invite the use of my thoughts concerning the engagement of Afrofuturism in HCD as a probe in advancing the continued evolution of the needed methodological rigor in increasing inclusivity and thus equity within the culture, processes, and outcomes of HCD. The consequences are great, especially as technology is becoming more deeply engaged in our daily lives and activities.

For, as now being witnessed, design patterns, behaviors, and norms are being embedded and reinforced within HCD that, while unintentional, may lead to future technological solutions that do more harm than good.

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Russell and Svetlana Yaros. In the following, I provide a broader view of the complex symbiosis of science fiction and HCI research. To begin with, the authors conflate science fiction literature, cinema, and interactive media throughout the article. While the amalgamation of the different artistic expressions of science fiction is an object of continuous debate, it warrants more precision if we are to derive heuristics and recommendations for the utility of science fiction in HCI. Though there are exceptions to the rule, it is safe to assume that science fiction visualizations, such as movies, shows, or product visions can mostly be traced back to a science fiction novel, short story, or simply a written idea.

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Technovelgy , a science fiction web repository, lists more than ideas initially formulated in written visions. For example, the videophone is described in Jules Verne's novel In the Year as a phonotelephote :. The first thing that Mr. Smith does is to connect his phonotelephote, the wires of which communicate with his Paris mansion. The telephote! Here is another of the great triumphs of science in our time. The transmission of speech is an old story; the transmission of images by means of sensitive mirrors connected by wires is a thing but of yesterday.